BangDB - Embeddable Flavor

Transaction in BangDB

At the core, BangDB is designed for all single operations to ensure the ACID property. Which means that multiple user connections can be created and many simultaneous operations (reads and writes) can be run without worrying about the concurrency issues. This is because BangDB is a concurrent database engine which allows multiple threads or connections to modify the db at a time. This is possible due to the design of the db (please see the architecture doc for more info) which takes locks at the appropriate places to ensure sanity. It is interesting to note that even in highest possible concurrent situation, whole db is never locked. In fact whole index is also never locked. On an average two pages (among thousands of pages) are locked for write operation and in read we avoid the locking fully in most of the cases. This enhances the performance of db to great extent as it can leverage the cores of the machines in optimal manner

However, for multiple operations to be treated as a single unit of work, we need more than just the single op ACID guarantee from the db. And for this reason we explicitly need a transactional boundary within which we can place multiple operations and play with them yet keeping the ACID property intact. BangDB provides the support by implementing optimistic concurrency control (occ). Note that for single operation, the concurrency is done by locking and for multiple operations as a unit of work, the concurrency is offered through transaction (occ)

The transaction can be enabled or disabled by setting the appropriate configuration property in the bangdb.config file or opening the db with appropriate flag (DB_OPTIMISTIC_TRANSACTION). There is another setting in the config file known as AUTOCOMMIT , which when enabled allows user to run single op transaction in an implicit manner and if disabled, requires user to use explicit transaction boundary


Contrary to general belief, the transaction don't bring down the performance too drastically if implemented in right fashion. The one of the major reasons for implementing OCC was the performance as it allows the concurrency of highest level to proceed. Also the parallel validation further improves the performance. For BangDB here sis the quick comparison of performance

Index (Access Method) Transaction = OFF, Log - ON Transaction = ON, Log - ON
Write (ops/sec) Read (ops/sec) Write (ops/sec) Read (ops/sec)
Btree 475,000 1,025,000 250,000 800,000
Hash 500,000 1,690,000 275,000 875,000

Implementation Details

As stated above the transaction support is provided in BangDB using occ (optimistic concurrency control). There are mainly two ways of achieving the transaction property, one is through locking and other is though the occ. While locking way to provide the ACID support is also called the pessimistic way of achieving the same. This is because no matter what db would lock the resources as soon as it's fetched from the db whereas in occ locking is required only for small period and that too when actual update is being performed. This enables the db to allow multiple concurrent transaction to proceed and yet ensuring the full ACID. The optimistic way of doing it assumes that most of the time other concurrent transaction will not intersect with a particular ongoing transaction, which is true in general use cases. For example, what would be the probability of multiple transactions accessing same page from available 100 thousand pages? But even if it happens that two or more transactions intersect, then the one or more transactions are aborted and then user will have to retry to updates. The retry is the only penalty user pays in the occ approach. But this is not too often and over the period of time overall of gains from the occ outshine this retry downside of the approach


This is enabled by default, which means that every single op will have implicit ACID support even if transaction is disabled. But when autocommit is disabled and transaction is on then user will have to use the transaction explicitly (begin and commit) even for a single operation (read or write)


Each transaction is treated as a single unit of work. Hence either all succeed or all fail. BangDB ensures this by applying the 3 steps parallel validation to ensure serializability


Each transaction is isolated from the other concurrent transactions. Hence the changes done by a particular transaction is not visible by other transactions. Since BangDB implements the highest order of isolation hence following are not possible

  • Dirty Read
  • Non-Repeatable Read
  • Phantom Read


Concurrent user transactions never leave the db in in-consistent state. Since validation is done before committing and transactions are rolled back when issues are seen thus ensuring that only consistent transactions commit and apply changes to the db. Also user never see inconsistent state of the db as each transaction is isolated from other one fully


Once the changes are committed, they become permanent. WAL helps in this regard as logs are flushed to the disk which is enough to ensure the durability as it can be replayed to get the db state back to normal in case of db crash or abrupt process termination